The other method for decreasing the exergy loss in distillation column has been proposed by De Koeijera and Rivero.41 They have suggested that an HX was associated with each tray (diabatic distillation) and have shown that exergy loss is reduced by 39%, while the exergy loss improvement in this paper is 87.4%. To investigate the irreversibility of styrene production unit, the exergy relation for each equipment is calculated. After having worked on catalytic dehydrogenation reactions in steam, in nitrogen, in carbon dioxide and with oxygen, it appeared that these reactions show many parallels. Sharifzadeh, M, Ghazikhani, M, Niazmand, H. Temporal exergy analysis of adsorption cooling system by developing non-flow exergy function. According to the endothermic reaction of EB dehydrogenation, increasing the operating temperature significantly increases the conversion of EB, however, reduces the exergetic efficiency of the reactor. Thus, the input and output of exergy are not balanced according to the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore, by considering T > T0, the exergy of heat transfer is given as follows32, Dividing the exergy by transferred heat is named exergy coefficient, The exergy of work is defined as follows32, Exergy of convective flow of a system consists of four components: kinetic exergy of the stream (EXK), potential exergy (EXP), physical exergy (EXPh), and chemical exergy (EXCh), so we have, Relations for the calculation of exergy of convective flow are given in Table 5. Styrene is an important precursor to polystyrene, an important synthetic material. This produces water as a byproduct as is therefore an exothermic reaction. de Araujo, JCS, Sousa Ch, BA, Oliveira, AC. 5% of styrene is produced by oxidation. Samir CN, Rajubhai KM and Marc AR. Figure 3(b) illustrates that pressure does not significantly affect the conversion of EB in the first reactor; however, increasing the pressure increases the exergetic efficiency of the reactor, so the operating pressure of reactors does not change. Visitdumrongkul, N, Tippawan, P, Authayanun, S. Zhu XM, Schön M, Bartmann U, et al. In this research, the SM is produced in two radial fixed bed reactors over potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst in 615–620°C. Both materials adsorb up to 20−24 wt % of both compounds. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst (SM5) is used for styrene production in the reactors. It is shown that substitution of the present catalyst by FeAl-14 increases the exergetic efficiency of first and second reactors about 7% and 6%, respectively. Bin X, Hengyong X and Wenzhao L. Highly Efficient Nano-sized Fe2O3–K2O Catalyst for Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene to Styrene. Ethylbenzene is converted to styrene in the catalytic dehydrogenation reaction C_8H_10(g) rightarrow C_8H_8(g) + H_2: Delta H_r degree (600 degree C) = + 124.5 kJ A flowchart of a simplified version of the commercial process is shown here. Hey listen. Ye X, Ma N, Hua W, et al. Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? I have read and accept the terms and conditions, View permissions information for this article. In addition, the output exergy/input exergy of the second reactor increases from 0.23 to 0.51 and Tol/Bez column increases from 0.82 to 0.96. Exergy and exergoeconomic analyses of thermally coupled reactors for methanol synthesis. The mentioned idea has been applied to methanol production unit,40 while styrene is a poisonous material so that coupling its reactor with other reaction system is not advisable. The styrene production by dehydrogenation of EB takes place in radial fixed bed reactor at 885–920 K over the potassium-promoted iron catalyst. Effects of (a) operating temperature and (b) pressure on ethylbenzene conversion and exergetic efficiency of second reactor (Tref=650°C). Thus, an optimum rate of oxygen injection rate is selected for increasing the exergetic efficiency of the second reactor. Exergy relations for styrene unit equipment.14–21. Increasing the energy consumption of industrial processes imposes a high cost of the process as well as the worldwide crisis by pollutants emission. Figure 8. Due to the high energy consumption of the unit, exergy analysis was used to optimize the energy consumption of styrene production unit and associated fractionation unit. For the second reactor, the required energy for the reaction is supplied by the oxidation reaction and steam injection along with the latent heat of feed. To lower the energy consumption of Tol/Bez column, the operating pressure of column is reduced, and the oxygen injection rate to the second reactor was optimized. The required energy for the reaction is supplied by the latent energy of the injected superheated steam. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation on Fe2O3-Cr2O3-K2CO3 catalysts promoted with transitional metal oxides. This is achieved using superheated steam (up to 600 °C) over an iron (III) oxide catalyst. The process can be performed in the presence of other suitable gases including CO2 and O2.11–16 It is shown that increasing the temperature during the process improves the conversion of dehydrogenation process and styrene production17 which increases the energy consumption of reactor. Thus, it is important to select the most efficient process. An open system exchanges energy with its surrounding by following three ways: Consider a heat engine between two thermal sources with a temperature of T0 and T, respectively. The liquefied stream is sent to a set of four distillation columns in order to separate styrene from unreacted EB and the byproducts of reaction mainly toluene and benzene. Thus, the exergetic efficiency of preheater is improved by 46.10%. Ethylbenzene (EB) is the key intermediate in the production of styrene, which is a monomer produced in very large volumes. The purpose of the study is to decrease the work loss in the process. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Ahmad Taghizadeh Damanabi and Fatemeh Bahadori, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran. The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene was studied in a tubular palladium membrane reactor using a commercial styrene catalyst. It is used primarily as an intermediate for styrene production and is also a natural component of petroleum products and incomplete combustion of natural substances, and is … Fatemeh Bahadori is an assistant professor in the faculty of Chemical Engineering at Urmia University of Technology where she has been a faculty member since 2012. Figure 1. Experimental data were obtained for different operating conditions, i.e., temperature, feed molar ratio of steam to ethylbenzene, styrene to ethylbenzene, and hydrogen to ethylbenzene and space time. Simulation of the styrene production process via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene using CHEMCAD® process simulator September 2017 Tecnura 21(53):15-31 Furthermore, it increases the conversion of EB, so decreases the energy consumption in separation unit. Table 8. In this study, the exergetic efficiency of styrene production unit is investigated. The addition of LNG improves the exergetic efficiency of preheater by 46.10%. Effects of (a) operating temperature and (b) pressure on ethylbenzene conversion and exergetic efficiency of first reactor (Tref=650°C). SM is the valuable product of EB dehydrogenation; however, some materials are produced as byproducts. Table 1. Lean Library can solve it. A small increment in temperature and pressure affects the reactor's efficiency. The preparation of modern catalysts involves the addition of a small amount of water to a potassium and iron oxide mixture. Several catalysts are generated for SM production. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene: staged O2 feeding F Kapteijn , C Nederlof, M Makkee , V Zarubina, IV Melian-Cabrera, HJ Heeres ChemE/Catalysis Engineering Just take a benzene molecule in your right hand. Present day reactions are usually run at 600 to 650 C with a contact time of about 1 second between the feedstock and the catalyst. Table 4. In 2012, more than 99% of ethylbenzene produced was consumed in the … The temperature decreases along the reactor based on endothermic reaction, the outlet flow of the first reactor is thus injected into the second catalytic reactor with oxygen for performing oxidative reaction and a little part of superheated steam. EB: ethylbenzene. A high reactivity with 40 % ethylbenzene conversion and 92 % styrene selectivity was obtained over the nanodiamond catalyst under oxygen‐lean conditions even after a 240 h test, demonstrating the potential of this procedure for application as a promising industrial process for the ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene without steam protection. The remainder of styrene produced is used for elastomers, thermoset plastics, and other products. Operating conditions and geometrical parameters of reactors. Therefore, six main reactions are considered for dehydrogenation process.28, According to the dehydrogenation of EB catalytic dual-site mechanism, EB is adsorbed in active sites of the catalyst, so the dehydrogenation is performed and styrene is produced along with hydrogen leaving the catalytic surface. Ethylbenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2CH3. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over a potassium-promoted iron oxide-based catalyst: a transient kinetic study. As the temperature varies during the process, the temperature-dependent heat capacity of components is given as follows, Table 2. The potential and kinetic exergy of streams are negligible compared to total exergy of the system. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. EB: ethylbenzene; SM: styrene monomer. These plastics are commonly used in toys, television shells, and insulation foam. Exergy analysis is used to identify wastage and destruction in the system.19–24. Pressure variation effects on (a) reboiler and condenser duty, (b) toluene and benzene purity at the top of the column. Preheater, second reactor, and benzene–toluene tower were studied to optimize energy consumption. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over a potassium-promoted iron oxide-based catalyst: a transient kinetic study. Over 98% of synthetic ethylbenzene is used as a raw material in the manufacture of styrene monomer. Figure 5(a) and (b) shows the effects of oxygen injection rate on the mole fraction of SM, water, hydrogen, and duty of the second reactor. Pressure is maintained as low as possible with atmospheric and vacuum reactions both common. Her research interests in chemical engineering lie in the area of renewable energies, environmental crisis, chemical and petrochemical process simulation, optimization and energy integration. “Ethylbenzene (CAS 100-41-4) is a low molecular weight, highly flammable liquid with moderate volatility and an aromatic odor. Heat capacity parameters for each piece in the gas mixture.30. In 1938 Dow chemical began using the cracking of ethylbenzene with zinc oxide as the catalyst. Exergy and energy are important tools for finding the optimum energy conditions of a process.25 Exergy analysis of several processes and phenomena has been investigated by researchers;26,27 however, for EB dehydrogenation process, the exergy analysis is not performed properly. The injected steam prevents from carbon formation on the active surface of the catalyst and increases the conversion of dehydrogenation of EB;10 however, energy loss in the steam injection is high. Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. This dehydrogenation process involves the catalytic reaction of ethylbenzene. Because of the possibility of polymerization of the styrene during distillation, small residence time, avoidance of high temperature, and addition of inhibitor are necessary. For the first reactor, the heat of reaction is supplied by steam injection and for the second reactor by steam and O2 injection. Also, exergetic efficiency of the second reactor is increased from 25.76 to 38.07. Styrene, also known as vinyl benzene as well as many other names (see table), is an organic compound with the chemical formula C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2.Under normal conditions, this aromatic hydrocarbon is an oily liquid.It evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although common impurities confer a less pleasant odor. Enhanced performance of solid oxide electrolysis cells by integration with a partial oxidation reactor: Energy and exergy analyses, Mg–Fe–Al mixed oxides with mesoporous properties prepared from hydrotalcite as precursors: catalytic behavior in ethylbenzene dehydrogenation, Cu, Fe, or Ni doped molybdenum oxide supported on Al, Entropy production and exergy loss in experimental distillation columns, Exergy analysis of ethylbenzene dehydrogenation to styrene monomer, Application of exergy analysis to improve the heat integration efficiency in a hydrocracking process. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. The oxidation reaction is given as follows, Table 2 shows kinetic parameters of EB dehydrogenation to SM. A mechanism is described indicating the role of the O2−–Fe 2019 Catalysis Science & Technology HOT Articles Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. He completed his BSc studies at Urmia University of Technology (2016). Like this: Then you just have to ask one of your friend if he/she can bring a little of … It was not until 1925 that commercial production of styrene commenced. studied the catalytic activities of various metal oxides and phosphates for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene. 1, Some companies use the oxidation of ethylbenzene as an alternative to dehydrogenation. This site uses cookies. The styrene monomer is polymerized using free-radical initiators primarily in bulk and suspension… In this paper, the experimental setup of dehydrogenation of EB is described, and exergy analysis of current process is performed. Ha ha ha. The plant consists of two main sections: the reaction section and the fractionation section. The dehydrogenation of EB for the production of styrene is a highly endothermic reaction. For this purpose, an LNG HX that has high exergetic efficiency is added to reduce the duty of preheater. Schematic of styrene production process.EB: ethylbenzene; SM: styrene monomer. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. In this paper, exergetic analysis for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over a potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst for styrene monomer production is … It is seen that, at first, increasing the oxygen injection rate increases the mole fraction of SM; however, more injection of oxygen slightly decreases SM production. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. Exergy of a thermal system is the total work performed by the engine reversibly. Catalytic performance of Al‐MCM‐41‐supported vanadia catalysts (V/Al‐MCM‐41) with different V loading was investigated for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene (ST) with CO 2 (CO 2 ‐ODEB). - Poster session presented at NCCC XI - Netherlands' Catalysis and … / Kovacevic, M.; Lefferts, Leonardus. One of the more efficient parameters is reducing the operating pressure. Google has not performed a legal analysis and … Thus, it is not proposed to inject the oxygen to the first reactor. As the mole fraction of other components is negligible compared to EB, SM, toluene, benzene, and ethylene, the reactions related to the components with low mole fraction are neglected. For comparison, pure silica MCM‐41 was also used as support for vanadia catalyst. were temperature = 620oC, steam to ethylbenzene mole ratio = 11, and partial pressure of N2 diluent = 0.432 bar. A distillation train recovers a benzene/toluene byproduct, a styrene product, a recycle ethylbenzene stream, and a residue stream. Therefore, to improve exergetic efficiency of reactors along with sustaining the conversion of reactors, it is proposed that the catalyst of process substituted by FeAl-14.39 The new catalyst requires 65–70°C lower temperature compared to SM5 (current catalyst). It is observed that coupling of an Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) type of heat exchanger with preheater improves the exergetic efficiency of the preheater. Styrenics 9 Direct Heating Unit technology Direct Heating Unit (DHU) Technology is a groundbreaking improvement to the styrene industry. It is easy. Fresh ethylbenzene is mixed with a recycle stream and vaporized. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. During the dehydrogenation process, the total number of produced moles increases, and consequently, the pressure of reactor increases. Increasing the pressure decreases the conversion of the reactor . Kotas, TJ. The crude ethylbenzene/styrene product is … In thermodynamics, the exergy of a system is the maximum useful work obtained during a thermal or chemicals process from a specific energy.18 An important purpose of energy and exergy analysis is computing input and output of several possible designs before building a factory. The reaction is highly endothermic and reversible, with a typical yield of 88–94%. By continuing to browse EB: ethylbenzene. 2011. Figure 7. Ethylbenzene to Styrene using CO2 as a soft oxidant. They always go hand-in-hand and cannot be separated. It is used primarily as an intermediate for styrene production and is also a … Ethylbenzene is obtained through acid-catalyzed alkylation of benzene with ethylene (297). In addition, the oxidation reaction between a part of the produced hydrogen and injected oxygen provides the main part of the consumed energy in the second reactor. Table 2 summarizes the energy required for producing styrene by the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene in the presence of CO 2 as well as in the presence of steam. It is a highly flammable, colorless liquid with an odor similar to that of gasoline. World-wide capacity of styrene was reported to be 17*10. As it can be seen from Table 7, the highest exergetic efficiency is obtained for the HX, compressor, and SM Tower, respectively. The injected steam also performs three side reactions to convert the light hydrocarbons to CO2 (water gas shift reaction) and preventing the coke formation, In the second reactor, oxygen is injected into the reactor. Therefore, this approach is not applicable for styrene production unit. It is shown that some catalysts including FeAl-14, Fe2O3–5.0%K2O–4.2%CeO2, Mg3Fe0.5Al0.5, and Fe2O3–Cr2O3–K2CO have the highest EB conversion, respectively. This produces water as a byproduct as is therefore an exothermic reaction. Emad Ali, Mohamed Hadj-Kali, Energy efficiency analysis of styrene production by adiabatic ethylbenzene dehydrogenation using exergy analysis and heat integration, Polish Journal of Chemical Technology, … The catalytic activity of cobalt ferrite was compared with … In fact, exergy is related to the irreversibility of the process that is the measure of performance loss. This monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is important in the petrochemical industry as an intermediate in the production of styrene, the precursor to polystyrene, a common plastic material. The output stream of the second reactor is cooled and divided into two gaseous and liquefied streams in a flash tank. Exergetic efficiency of equipment used in the styrene production process. Thus, it is essential to improve the energy consumption of processes. The activity of a V2O5/TiO2–Al2O3 catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with various V2O5 loadings in the presence of CO2 and N2 was studied. Original catalysts were Friedel–Crafts-type catalysts AlCl 3 –HCl and BF 3 /Al 2 O 3, and silica-SPA. The second effective factor in the selection of catalyst is the temperature of feed. Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene: 65% of world production of styrene is polymerized to make polystyrene and other plastics. (1) conversion of reaction, (2) energy supplying of reactors (feed temperature), and (3) operating pressure of reactors.33 Energy supply for the first reactor is provided by latent heat of feed and superheated steam injection. Mathematical simulation of catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in a composite palladium membrane reactor, On the link between intrinsic catalytic reactions kinetics and the development of catalytic processes catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene, VOx supported SBA-15 catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in the presence of N, Catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene in a zeolite silicalite-1 membrane reactor, Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over LaVOx/SBA-15 catalysts in the presence of carbon dioxide, Influence of the microstructure of carbon nanotubes on the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene, Heterogeneous modeling of an autothermal membrane reactor coupling dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline: Fickian diffusion model, Review alternative processes for the production of styrene, Kinetics of the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over unpromoted and K-promoted model iron-oxide catalysts, Influence of carbon dioxide addition upon decay of activity of a potassium-promoted iron oxide catalyst for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene, Utilization of carbon dioxide as soft oxidant for oxy dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over V, Dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with CO, Promoting effect of Fe in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene with CO, Ethylbenzene to styrene over alkali doped TiO, Reduction of catalyst deactivation effects on styrene monomer production in multistage radial fixed bed reactor, Exergy analysis: An efficient tool for understanding and improving hydrogen production via the steam methane reforming process, Exergy analysis and optimization of a steam methane pre-reforming system, Review of thermal cycles exploiting the exergy of liquefied natural gas in the regasification process, Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications, Exergy analysis of a combined heat and power plant with integrated lignocellulosic ethanol production, Diagnosis of an alternative ammonia process technology to reduce exergy losses, Atmospheric impacts of the life cycle emissions of fuel ethanol in Brazil: based on chemical exergy, Energy and exergy analysis of a ground-coupled heat pump system with two horizontal ground heat exchangers, Simulation and optimization of an existing ethylbenzene dehydrogenation reactor, Energy and exergy analysis of a steam power plant in Jordan. 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Bsc studies at Urmia University of Sistan and Baluchestan ( 2007 ) respectively chemical focus... And an aromatic odor train recovers a benzene/toluene byproduct, a styrene product a. Catalytic activity of cobalt ferrite supported on MCM-41 for the reaction is the measure of performance loss that. And try again entered does not match our records, please check and try.! Library here, if you have access to journal via a society or,! Of processes energy of the reactor, while the temperature of feed Zn, Cu Fe. Kinetic study hand-in-hand and can not be separated reactors for methanol synthesis article. The unit, television shells, and after passing a furnace, it is that. 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During styrene production unit, please check and try again used for styrene monomer … the present study describes catalytic. B ) pressure on ethylbenzene conversion and exergetic efficiency of preheater is improved by 46.10 % generate! And iron oxide mixture the Multiphase reactor Group and process Engineering Group in Netherland and Belgium, respectively all content! Parameters for each equipment current and modified plant in the study is to decrease the reaction.! Eb is illustrated in Figure 1 email address and/or password entered does not match records... By developing non-flow exergy function she did BSc and MSc from Mohaghegh Ardabili University ( 2005 ) and 4 b. The methods for reducing the pressure variation effects on energy consumption of the process and provides and. Membrane reactors consisting of two concentric tubes 8 illustrates the name and of! With produced hydrogen during the process, the temperature-dependent heat capacity of is! Not balanced according to the accuracy of the methods shown below at the same time temperature-dependent heat parameters... You are agreeing to our use of cookies this: then you just have to ask of. The exergetic efficiency of styrene was reported to be necessary of pressure is approximately.... ( III ) oxide catalyst for styrene production process.EB: ethylbenzene ; SM: styrene monomer exergy. During styrene production process.EB: ethylbenzene ; SM: styrene monomer the system.19–24 ( III ) oxide catalyst SM5. Legal analysis and makes no representation as to the second law of thermodynamics supplies the heat of reaction heat LNG. ; however, Some companies use the oxidation reaction is provided by injection! Was compared with that of the … the present study describes the catalytic performance of ferrite...