Categories . In the case of OCD, this may include any stimulus that prompts an obsession. Neutralization includes overt behaviors (washing, checking, etc.) The following literature reviews attempt to support this hypothesis. Despite the effectiveness of SRIs in the treatment of OCD, there are some drawbacks to their use. IOCDF noted that the feeling is unwanted, overwhelming, and includes intense anxiety which can be very Numerous studies have shown that using from 10 to 20 sessions of ERP produces significant improvement in symptoms. Also common are washing rituals, which serve to remove “contamination” or “dirt” and thereby prevent a feared disaster (e.g., disease). In normal cognitive processing, irrelevant and intrusive thoughts are simply ignored, whereas in cognitive processing by people with OCD these thoughts are attended to, believed important, and attempts to suppress them are undertaken. This means that if you have 500 friends on your Facebook page 5 of them are diagnosed with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. This relief negatively reinforces the compulsions. An example of a symptom is rechecking things over and over again. The basal ganglia assist in the regulation of movement and cognitive functioning. Other PET scan studies have found increased metabolic activity in the striatum during exposure among OCD cleaners, but reduced metabolic activity among OCD checkers. OCD is an anxiety disorder that is described as someone with obsessive thoughts and/or compulsive behavior. However, while these cultural variables may influence the symptom expression in OCD, there is little evidence to suggest they contribute to the development of the disorder. Also may be used to lower intracranial and intraocular pressures. Abel, J. L. (1993). On average, StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes ... Ocd Research Paper . Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 79-87. The basal ganglia, frontal cortex, and the limbic structures which connect them have been the focus of anatomical models of OCD. Few studies offer a direct comparison of behavior therapy, SRIs, or a combination of the two. A number of parental characteristics have been hypothesized to play a role in the development of OCD. Home; About Us. OCD may not be as rare as originally thought. Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers . Unfortunately, few studies report dropout or noncompliance rates for SRIs. There may be some utility to identifying subtypes of OCD. MWF: 1-1:50 These pharmacologic challenge studies provide a second direct way of testing the role of serotonin in OCD. In the second step, this appraisal elicits neutralizing behavior (overt or covert). I … Substantial reductions in YBOCS scores among patients in multiple family therapy groups that included spouses/partners, parents, and other relatives have been reported. Belle’s article on transformational leadership has been tied to the greatest influential motivating behavior and great public worker actions. After 5 to 6 years, only 2 patients relapsed. Some investigators have observed cognitive changes after ERP treatment, especially with respect to the overestimation of risk. And those worries frequently force them to behave in certain ways over and over again. Parents of checkers are hypothesized to set higher standards for their children, to be overcontrolling and overcritical, as well as modeling meticulousness. Prevalence rates in this range have been replicated in a variety of studies throughout the world. Case studies of the application of this type of therapy have been promising. The research connects the performance effects of transformational leadership and an assembly of nurses in a municipal hospital in Italy (2013). There are three different forms: OCD, Pure “O”, and “Responsibility OC”. Some studies suggest that nonanxious, consistent family members are more successful in providing support and supervision than anxious and inconsistent members, especially those who engage in argument and ridicule. Preliminary findings from one study suggest that using self-help texts can lead to significant improvement. Teleios does not only mean product perfection but the also, the passion of delivering perfect treatment to the people behind the glory. The Effect of transactional and transformational Leadership Styles on The Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Customer Contact Personnel (Emery & Barker, 2007); examines the assurance and employment gratification of workers who are working by banking and food establishments. One form of Tourette’s may be OCD-related and some OCD cases are Tourette’s-related. Baxter and colleagues suggested that the gating and screening activities of the striatum fail to inhibit impulses or thoughts that “leak” into consciousness and are experienced as obsessions. A number of investigators suggest taking multiple transmitter systems into account in developing a more complex model of OCD. Salkovskis, P. M. (1985). 3/21/2015 Example Of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Research Paper. Uses of the product Despite its name, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is no more closely related to OCD than avoidant, dependent, histrionic, or several other personality disorders. People with OCD are caught up in repetitive behavior and thoughts that they cannot stop. Some impulse control disorders overlap with OCD and, consequently, they have been labeled as OC Spectrum Disorders. It has been proposed that in this theory, more emphasis should be given to dysfunctional beliefs about controlling thoughts and the costs of not doing so, as well as to the effect of depression in impairing the ability to control thoughts. The development of sophisticated instrumentation, more precise lesion placement, and the increasing safety record make psychosurgery a viable treatment option for patients who have failed to respond to multiple medication trials and behavior therapy. Biological Treatments for OCDIV. Similar findings have emerged for general memory deficits. In a comprehensive 1993 review, Abel concludes that ERP is more effective than clomipramine, especially in the treatment of rituals. Also check our tips on how to write a research paper, see the lists of psychology research paper topics, and browse research paper examples. Studies using subclinical OCD symptoms to establish concordance have found strong evidence of genetic involvement in OCD. They can abuse alcohol. For males, the mean age of onset is 14 to 19 years, while for females it is 21.7 to 22.0 years. However, some have suggested that what is transmitted is a diathesis for anxiety disorders rather than OCD specifically. More large-scale direct comparisons of treatment efficacy are needed before drawing conclusions regarding differential effectiveness of these drugs. This overestimation of threat is part of an inaccurate appraisal process which contributes to the development of OCD. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) As a result, research has started to examine research paper supported strategies that may improve treatment outcome and reduce help of future relapse. There is some indication that the expression of OCD symptomatology is at least partially influenced by cultural factors. Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder Paper Introduction: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychological disorder which affects a large percentage of people in the world today, and it is most rampant in the developed world. This study demonstrates the potential for group administration of ERP. Treatment strategies based on the behavioral model attempt to disconnect obsessions from the associated discomfort and to eliminate rituals that prevent habituation of obsessional fears. First, concentrations of known metabolites of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid: 5-HIAA)in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid provide peripheral markers of serotonin in the brain. Increased metabolic activity has also been observed in the caudate nucleus of OCD patients during rest. The reliance on superstition, or on magical or pseudoscientific justifications for obsessional beliefs also reflects attempts to make the reality fit the fiction. So far, no studies examining the efficacy of SRIs compared to or combined with cognitive treatments have been reported. Such efforts at control are hypothesized to be evident in hypervigilance for mental events, in a moral attitude toward control as a virtue, and in feared psychological and behavioral consequences of the failure to control thoughts. Most people are able to dismiss them from consciousness and move on. This paper gives an overview of current diagnosis criteria, statistical data, causes of the disorder as well as current treatment options. If negative appraisal occurs without the appraisal of responsibility, neutralization will not take place and the result will be anxiety and/or depression, but not OCD. Theorists also suggest that neutralization may develop only when other thought control efforts fail. The function of the basal ganglia is to detect stimuli that activate fixed-action patterns and to allow their release. Although this model clearly accounts for the maintenance of OCD symptoms, it does not adequately account for many instances of onset, and expansion of this theory is necessary. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Instead, they react to what they imagine might be there despite a lack of sensory evidence to support the belief. Ocd Research Paper Topics & Free Essay Examples. These reviews have found behavioral and pharmacologic treatments equivalent, or that ERP alone and ERP in combination with medication were both more effective than SRIs alone, according to self-report measures. I. Predictors of treatment response have been examined in a recent multicenter trial of more than 500 patients. After 12 weeks, both exposure treatment conditions showed significant improvement in OCD symptoms, while the control group did not. Majority of the day is consumed with this disorder because they are unable to control the obsessions or compulsions. Nonclinical subjects showed poorer overall memory functioning, whereas findings for clinical patients were mixed, although most studies reported poorer memory functioning, especially with regard to visual memory. Symptom decreases of 45% at discharge and 60% at 6-month follow-up indicate good success with family member involvement. Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. (1986). These fixed-action patterns are innate species-specific responses that are motor programs for action and take the form of grooming and safety rituals. Unfortunately, the evidence fails to provide any clear indication of which co-occur most frequently. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 51, 61-69. One out of one-hundred people have OCD. Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder become preoccupied with whether something could be harmful, dangerous, wrong, or dirty. Our customer support team is available Monday-Friday 9am-5pm EST. Among subclinical compulsive checkers, several studies reported deficits in memory for actions performed. OCD paper begins in adolescence, but may start in early adulthood or childhood. Consequently, processing ordinary information requires more conscious effort and active suppression of irrelevant or unwanted thoughts. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that imaginal exposure may work better for patients with checking compulsions, perhaps because their fears can be more easily accessed by imagery. Cost-effective applications of the behavioral treatments known to work for OCD are sorely needed. Some investigators report associations between OCD and kleptomania, as well as exhibitionism. ComorbidityII. As a result, the globus pallidus fails to inhibit the thalamus from sending signals to the cortex. OCD research papers: point 1. In addition, the families of OCD patients show higher levels of expressed emotion (criticism and overinvolvement) than families of controls. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger. Therefore, the passive avoidance which allows phobics to manage their fears is often insufficient to control anxiety for those with OCD. One observation from this literature deserves comment. Little information is available regarding relapse rates for the SRIs. Intolerance for ambiguity is evident in obsessional beliefs about the necessity of being certain, about poor capacity to cope with unpredictable change, and about inadequate functioning in situations that are inherently ambiguous. Direct evidence of the role of serotonin in OCD comes from two types of studies. Some have used open-ended monthly group meetings for family members and patients to discuss the effect of OCD on the family and to plan coping strategies and rehearse behavioral exercises. It may cause the disorder or may simply be the biological expression of it. Baxter, L., Schwartz, J., Guze, B., Bergman, K., & Szuba, M. (1990). They suggest that ERP may reduce the overestimation of risk experienced by people with OCD. Sample Papers; Tags . That is, they anticipate danger or misfortune more readily than nonobsessionals and may believe in the need to be concerned about danger and to dwell on its possible occurrence in order to protect themselves. However, obsessive-compulsive disorder basically involves two components. Numerous cases report similar characteristics in the parents of OCD patients, including demanding or critical attitudes, overprotectiveness, perfectionism, and rejecting attitudes. ocd A research compared participants with clear diagnoses of either generalized anxiety disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder with each other, as well as with controls, in order to identify cognitive researches between both groups. Obsessive-compulsive disorder research illustrates that obsessive-compulsive disorder is a psychiatric problem that affects approximately 2.5 percent of the population of the world, including children and adolescents. Diagnostically, obsessions can be distinguished from symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and hypochondriasis in that they are mental experiences that are not merely excessive worries about real-life problems (e.g., finances, family well-being, health, etc.). as well as mental events, attempts to put things right, thought suppression, and reassurance seeking. COMPANY LOGO TO BE REVEALED SOON Four types of such surgery are in use: cingulotomy, capsulotomy, limbic leucotomy, and subcaudate tractotomy. Living with OCD Although many people experience minor obsessions (e.g. Specific causes for these deficits will require further research. Efforts to incorporate family members into the treatment process must be guided by such research. Several researchers have suggested the use of support groups for patients and family members. In the OCD Family Study (1996-2001), we evaluated over 800 individuals in 153 families. Although it appears that high levels of perfectionism also characterize other disorders (e.g., social phobia, depression, and eating disorders), it appears to be important in shaping the course of OCD, and consequently international experts consider it a key cognitive component. No differences among the treatments have been observed when assessor-rated measures were used. The first step in the process is an appraisal of an intrusive thought as an indication that they are in some way responsible for harm or its prevention. This article provides an up-to-date summary of the state of knowledge regarding obsessive-compulsive disorder. Although our knowledge of the nature and treatment of this disorder is far greater than it was a decade ago, there remain significant gaps. The company holds the principle of incompassing perfection into its products, and every related operation tied with it. van Oppen, P., & Arntz, A. In families where households are restructured to adapt to OCD symptoms, greater family dysfunction and negative attitudes toward the patient have been observed. . Some clinical, as well as empirical, research supports this hypothesis. Despite a wide range in the degree of insight shown by OCD patients, OCD is relatively rarely accompanied by schizophrenia, although some research suggests a link. Similar models postulate a problem with the “comparator mechanism” in the limbic system or in the basal ganglia which matches sensory information with what is anticipated. This model focuses on the inference process. OCD research papers: point 2. Impulses are the result of the obsession. No reality-monitoring deficits have been found. An alternate cognitive theory of OCD proposed recently is quite different from the appraisal model that has characterized previous cognitive theories. Based on the information from alibaba.com (2005), refined glycerin serves as an emollient, humectants, solvent, and lubricant in personal care products. Ocd affects about 2.2 million Americans age 18 and older in any given year and about one percent of young kids may have ocd. Preliminary results from a multicenter trial suggests that ERP alone may be more effective than clomipramine and the combination of clomipramine and ERP. Treatments of obsessive compulsive disorder. Models emphasizing the appraisal of threat form the backdrop for most of the cognitive theories of OCD. So far i have: Someone who is getting ready for school but has to stop to count objects or was their hands multiple times might have ocd. Additionally, several studies have found that self-controlled treatment is as effective as therapist directed, and may produce more durable gains. Comorbidity with anxiety disorders is quite high, ranging from 25 to 60%, with the highest frequencies for specific phobias, followed by social phobia and panic disorder. Nonetheless, they provide some pertinent information. These models involve a two-step process. Exposure with response prevention and serotonergic antidepressants in the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder: A review and implications for interdisciplinary treatment. Refined glycerin is used in medical and pharmaceutical preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, provide lubrication and humectants. Meta-analytic reviews have provided additional information about comparative efficacy. Refined Glycerine has numerous applications in many different industries like pharmaceuticals and drugs, personal care and cosmetics, foods and beverages, polyether polyols, tobacco, paper and printing, textiles, and many more. Dosage ranges have been partly tested for fluoxetine, with higher doses (up to 60 mg) producing better results, but additional research is needed to identify optimal dosage ranges for the SRIs. That was so easy and to receive a plagiarism never write papers on ocd research paper own again! Exposure and response prevention (ERP), the standard and most effective of the behavioral techniques, is derived from the two-stage theory of fear and avoidance. Recent research has found higher levels of perfectionism among OCD-diagnosed populations, as well as nonclinical populations, that exhibit obsessive-compulsive tendencies. Coping with threats generated by these beliefs is thought to be difficult for people with OCD. International experts have identified at least six such characteristics as being very important in OCD. It is not yet understood how insight influences treatment or whether some treatments (e.g., cognitive therapy) can change insight. He drew heavily from Beck’s cognitive theory of emotional disorders. Furthermore, elevations in metabolic activity in the frontal lobes are no longer present after successful treatment with medication or behavior therapy. The studies on group, self-directed, and family-assisted behavioral treatments guide the way for the future of OCD treatment. Other variants that have shown some promise include the use of therapist modeling and varying the duration of treatment and the spacing of ERP sessions. According to behavioral theory, exposure should reduce anxiety associated with obsessions, while response prevention should influence rituals more than obsessions. A substantial number of clinical and placebo controlled trials have now been conducted with the serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including clomipramine (Anafranil), fluvoxamine (Luvox), fluoxetine (Prozac), and sertraline (Zoloft). Most patients develop symptoms before age 25 (65%), and only a small number (15%) develop symptoms after age 35. This produces hyperactivity in the basal ganglia and frontal lobes. In a recent study done in the University of Houston, researchers examined whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and drinking. Reviews of combined ERP and SRI efficacy are hampered by the small number of studies using both treatments and by the inconsistencies in outcome measures. Households are restructured to adapt to OCD have met with considerably more.... By compulsions compulsions involves exposure to overt and covert cues that provoke obsessions, followed prevention... 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